Name of Movement

#LGBTQRights refers to the movement for equality for sexual and gender minorities, which are  often referred to by a variety of different titles, which are reflective of the history and growth of the movement. Advocates of sexual and gender minorities in the 1970s, commonly referred to those involved in the movement as “gay and lesbian.”[1] Since then, the name has changed to increase inclusiveness and recognition for those that do not identify specifically as “gay and lesbian.”

The acronym LGBT, which stands for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender, did not come about until the 1990s. This four letter acronym has been criticized for being too confining and not inclusive enough of the full spectrum of gender identities and sexualities for which it represents, owing to the traction and popularity gained by the more representative acronym, LGBTQ. LGBTQ, which stands for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer, includes anyone who identifies as being outside of the heterosexual cisgender binary. The use of the word queer or “Q” was reclaimed by the community after years of the term being used as a slur in an attempt to raise awareness for the non-binary nature of gender and sexuality. The community has been referred to by many different titles, and preference is dependent on the individual person. Some of the most common terms include: Gay Rights, Gay and Lesbian Rights, LGBT, GLBT, LGBTQ+, LGBTQIAA+, Queer Rights, and Gay Liberation. It is not possible to provide a completely exhaustive list, as new labels are constantly being added to the list. Social media platforms, especially Facebook, make an effort to be as inclusive as possible with their dialogue.[2]

This chart shows the relative frequency of terms in published books.[3]

Key Terms

The different names included in the name of movement can be found below, as well as other sexualities that often fall under the “Q” in LGBTQ.




Women who are attracted only to other women


Attracted to members of the same sex (ex: men to men)


Attracted to two or more genders


Attracted to anyone not specifically the opposite-sex; A reclaimed slur for anybody in the LGBTQ community or who do not identify as cisgender and/or hetersexual/heteromantic


Attracted to all genders and/or do not concern gender when you are attracted towards someone


Open to experiment with genders that are not only their own, but do not know if that are open to forming any sort of relationship with multiple genders


Attracted to many genders


Attracted to only one gender


Attracted to at least one gender; not asexual


Attracted to masculine gender presentation


Attracted to feminine gender presentation


Debating their own sexuality/gender

Asexual (ace)

Not experiencing sexual attraction


Sexually attracted after forming a strong emotional bond first or a romantic bond

Grey Asexual

Attracted rarely, on a very low scale, or only under certain circumstances


Sexual and romantic orientation target the same gender


Sexual and romantic orientations do not target the same set of genders

International Movement

The #LGBTQRights Movement makes headlines worldwide daily.The achievements of the movement widely differ from country to country. While some countries have seen widespread and growing awareness, others remain repressive in their homophobia. Globally, developed countries have been trending towards heightened awareness, increased political protections and civil rights for the LGBTQ community.[4] In 1989, Denmark was the first country in the world to legally recognize same-sex unions, and since then other countries have followed suit. Although, there has been an emergence in progressive social attitudes and public policies across the globe regarding LGBTQ populations, homosexuality remains a crime in numerous other countries and is punishable up to and including by death.[5]


Map Regarding Sexual Orientation Laws


Europe is divided on the issue of marriage and legal rights for LGBTQ couples. European countries that are looked upon as leaders in the movement for LGBTQ rights and equality include Belgium, the Netherlands, and Malta amongst many others.[7] Meanwhile, countries such as Belarus and the Ukraine, are considered to be more conservative and do not actively try to acknowledge the movement.[8] Although eight out of ten of the most “gay friendly” countries in the world are in Europe, the continent is divided between countries that have embraced more liberal policies such as Spain, the UK, and Sweden, from those in the east that tend to be more conservative.[9] Countries such as Albania, Lithuania, and Monaco do not recognize same-sex unions of any kind, while other countries including Austria, Croatia, and Italy do not permit same-sex marriage.[10]

Central and Eastern European countries, such as Poland, Lithuania, Romania, Slovenia, Russia, and Hungary, do not allow civil unions or marriage for same sex couples.

Even Italy, a religiously Catholic nation, legalized civil unions amongst same-sex couples in 2016; same-sex marriage has not been legalized though.

Germany legalized same-sex marriage in 2017, with conservative Chancellor Angela Merkel in power, who initially opposed the movement. In the United Kingdom— Scotland, Wales, and England— same-sex marriage was legalized back in 2013, while in Northern Ireland, only same-sex civil unions are allowed.


As of November 2017, the majority of Australia’s population has voted in favor of same-sex marriage. New Zealand legalized same-sex marriage in 2013. In Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia, only opposite-sex marriage is legally recognized.[11]

#LGBTQ Rights Australia
People carry banners and signs as they participate in a marriage equality march in Melbourne, Australia, August 26, 2017.

The Americas

In 2004, Massachusetts became the first of the fifty states in the United States to legalize same-sex marriage. The United States Supreme Court ruled in 2015 that same-sex marriage could not be banned by states, establishing same-sex marriage as a civil right in the landmark Obergefell v. Hodges case. Canada legalized same-sex marriage in 2005.

 In Latin America, a predominantly Catholic region, countries started legalizing same-sex marriage back in 2010. Latin American countries that currently allow for same-sex marriage include: Argentina, Colombia, Uruguay, Brazil, and most recently Mexico has ruled that laws prohibiting same-sex marriage are unconstitutional.[12]

Chile currently recognizes same-sex unions, after Chilean President, Michelle Bachelet, advocated for and introduced  a same-sex marriage and equal rights bill to the Chilean Congress in August 2017.[13]


Asian countries have varying levels of protections and rights for the LGBTQ community. Taiwan became the first country in Asia to recognize same sex marriage in May 2017.[14] Meanwhile, China has increased its efforts to censure and/or ban homosexual content or depictions in the media as well as on the Internet.[15] A 2017 ruling in India declared freedom of sexual orientation a fundamental right, thus challenging discriminatory practices against LGBTQ individuals. However, there are no laws regarding the legality or illegality of same sex marriage.[16]

Countries within Asia, such as Iran, Afghanistan, and Saudi Arabia, frequently have the harshest penalties for homosexuality, specifically the enforcement of the death penalty on men accused of engaging in sexual relations with other males.[17]


Homophobia is widespread throughout Africa, as 32 countries criminalize sexual conduct.[18] Ironically, South Africa has been has been a pioneer in protecting same-sex rights. Legalizing  same sex marriages in 2006, South Africa, becoming one the of first countries in the world and on the continent to recognize same- sex marriage.[19] South Africa remains the most progressive and the only country on the African continent with laws in place that serve to defend same- sex marriage as a civil right.

Social Issue / Events being Addressed

The LGBTQ community has faced discrimination for centuries. Within heterosexual-dominated societies, the movement has implemented a platform based on gaining legal protections against discrimination as well as social acceptance and inclusion. Through the use of social media, the LGBTQ community has been able to organize in a more strategic manner. The LGBTQ community, especially teenagers, also view the Internet as a way to learn more about their community, find guidance, and connect with others.

The LGBTQ community uses the Internet to unite their community and outsiders together against the challenges they face and to also inform them of the ways they plan on gaining greater acceptance in society, specifically through the use of social platforms and memes.

Key Images

Rainbow Flag

The LGBTQ community’s rainbow flag is the most iconic symbol for this movement. Designed in 1978 by Gilbert Baker, the LGBTQ flag gained popularity during the 25th anniversary of the 1994 Stonewall Riots in New York City.

Baker created the rainbow flag to symbolize the  different characteristics  of the community. The original flag had eight horizontal stripes, which each color having a different meaning: “hot pink for sex, red for life, orange healing, yellow for sun, green for serenity for nature, turquoise for art, indigo for harmony, and violet for spirit.”[20] Since then the flag has changed dramatically, going from eight stripes, to seven, to six, and then back to eight stripes, due to factors such as material availability. Regardless of the coloring of the flag, it symbolizes the diversity and inclusion of a strong, unified community.[21]

A Pew Research Center survey found that over one-third of individuals who self-identified as LGBTQ also identified as nonwhite.[22] These sentiments led to the modification of the latest version of the pride flag that was released in June 2017, which includes a brown and black stripe at the top to represent the LGBTQ individuals who identify as people of color. Some members of the community have spoken out against the inclusion of the two extra stripes asserting that the proposed changes draw attention to race and detract from the larger LGBTQ issues. Other community members argue that the two are not mutually exclusive and accept the pride flag variant. [23] 

The hashtag #MoreColorMorePride started trending following the introduction of the black and brown stripes to the rainbow LGBTQ flag, which was an attempt to be more inclusive of people of color within the community. The flag was created in the city of Philadelphia in response to allegations of racism at a gay bar.[24] The addition of the two extra stripes has caused much controversy, particularly from white gay men.

        The criticism are that the original rainbow flag historically represent the LGBTQ community as whole, arguing that the addition of the black and brown stripes is unnecessary. In a Washington Post article, political scientist Cathy Cohen called this discrimination as “secondary marginalization,” which is when marginalized groups further marginalize subgroups within their own community, failing to acknowledge and erasing the intersectionality within the community.[25]

#LGBTQRights Facebook Filter Rainbow Flag
Facebook made a filter available so users could show support for Gay Marriage. [28]

There are also different flags for different sexualities. The bisexual flag is both pink and blue, with the middle section being purple to symbolize their preference for both sexes. The pansexual flag has three horizontal stripes, pink and blue on the outer parts, and yellow in the middle. The yellow in the middle stands for those who “identify as mixed gender, genderless, or third gender.”[26]

The rainbow flag has appeared in the digital sphere as well, particularly on social media platforms. During the month of June, National Pride Month, Facebook users had the option to utilize the ‘rainbow flag reaction’ to show their support for statuses, comments, pictures, or shared media. Facebook also added a banner, so users had the ability to add the LGBT flag on top of their profile pictures. Google also celebrated pride month by adding rainbow flag banners when people had LGBTQ-related searches. [27]



Same-sex relations have existed in every society, although it wasn’t until contemporary times that there has been an emergence of the social construction of the LGBTQ identity and community. This chapter will focus specifically on the history of this movement within the United States. Prior to the actual emergence of the movement, several organizations began to form specifically around the issue of homosexuality and include, the “homophile movement,” the Mattachine Society, and Daughters of Bilitis.[29] 

These early organizations were the embryonic stage in the gay liberation movement however, it wasn’t until after years of police harassment that in 1969, LGBTQ individuals began a riot at the Stonewall Inn. This revolutionary event later became regarded as the emergence of the modern LGBTQ movement and brought awareness of gay rights into the political and social sphere.[30] Shortly after the riots which occurred over several days, activists mobilized and formed the Gay Liberation Front (GLF) which sought gay power and quickly grew across the United States. The GLF organized protests and utilized a strategy of direct action in their fight for gay rights.[31] The organization eventually split owing to internal divisions and led to the formation of the Gay Activists Alliance (GAA). These early organizations formed alliances with other marginalized groups and drawing upon their collective power, they fought to end police brutality and harassment, institute anti-discrimination ordinances, and improve social conditions for LGBTQ people.

The 1970s was a decade in which tremendous political and social transformation began to take hold in the United States. As the modern LGBTQ movement started to make strides, Elaine Noble and Harvey Milk were among some of the first openly gay/lesbian people voted into public office. The Pride flag made its first appearance at the first Pride March, which was held in commemoration of the Stonewall Riots which occurred a year before.[32] One of the most critical successes of the gay liberation that took place during this time was the declassification of homosexuality as a mental disorder by the American Psychological Association. [33] 

Despite the progress realized in the 1970s, the 1980s were fraught with challenges, as the AIDS crisis gripped the community.[34] What first appeared as an unknown disease, rapidly began spreading throughout the community of gay and bisexual men, and later became known as human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome or more popularly as HIV and AIDS.[35] This growing, yet deadly epidemic was widely seen as a “gay” disease and consequently those affected by it suffered from both societal and governmental indifference. In response to this indifference, grassroots organizations centered around AIDS activism began to emerge. An organization called ACT UP was instrumental in using boycotts, marches, demonstrations, nonviolent civil disobedience and other forms of unconventional direct action politics to gain media attention.[36] The movement implemented the use of the slogan “Silence=Death” which was not only one of the most compelling protest slogans of the decade, it also served to shift the way the public viewed and responded to the AIDS crisis. Some of the demands of the movement included demands for AIDS research, funding, clinical trials, and protections in housing and medication costs for those afflicted with the AIDS virus.[37] As a protest group, ACT UP continues to remain active. Rise and Resist, an intergenerational anti-Trump organization has been aided in organizing, strategizing, and tactical training, by some of the original leaders of ACT UP as well.[38]

By the 1990s, the AIDS epidemic had reached full fledged crisis proportions. Despite the fact that it had become the leading cause of death for men between the ages of 25-44, the US government was slow to acknowledge the disease thus contributing to an astounding lack of public recognition and awareness.[39] Visual Aids, an artist collective, created the AIDS awareness ribbon after being inspired by the yellow ribbons tied around trees in honor of service men and women during the Persian Gulf war. Members within the community began hosting “ribbon bees,” in which they created thousands of the red ribbons together. The intention was to distribute the ribbons, which were symbolic of blood, in order to increase awareness of this deadly epidemic affecting the community. The ribbons were widely distributed and in a brilliant stroke of tactical innovation, they gained widespread attention during the televised 1991 Tony Awards show. As celebrity after celebrity lent their support to the cause by coming out on stage wearing the ribbon attached to their clothes, public interest was piqued which gained extraordinary attention and national support.[40] The ribbon concept went on to be adopted by over 200 causes and resulted in the White House creating an Office of National AIDS Policy.[41] This served to provide much needed funding and research for the disease. The red ribbon has since become not only a design icon, but is now also considered to be the international symbol for AIDS awareness.[42]

The military policy, “Don’t Ask, Don’t tell” was also introduced during the 1990s under the Clinton administration. This controversial policy permitted homosexuals in the military so long as they did not reveal their sexuality, while it still allowed for the discharge of service personnel that engaged in any conduct that was determined to be homosexual in nature.[43] Additional policy enacted included The Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA). This policy served to define marriage as being between one man and one woman and also banned any federal recognition of same-sex marriage.[44] In their demands for equality, the LGBTQ movement set their sights on overturning these policies and rapidly learned to harness the increasing power of the Internet in order to do so. The Internet and social media began to gain widespread use and popularity during the 1990s and as early and prolific adopters of this technology, the LGBTQ movement was able to influence both the pace and success of their cause in the new millennium.[45]

The 2000s began with the expansion of the federal Hate Crimes Act to include protections for gay persons after a string of homophobic deaths in the previous decade, including the brutal murder of a young gay man, Matthew Shepard. The Lawrence v. Texas Case ruled sodomy laws in the U.S. unconstitutional and the issue of same-sex marriage was fiercely debated at the national level.[46] By April 2000, same-sex couples in Vermont were granted the right to enter into civil unions and Massachusetts became the first state to legalize same-sex marriage in May of 2004.[47] 

Despite the general public’s shifting on views on homosexuality, conservative religious circles continued to be vehemently opposed to any changes in the definition of marriage. In an effort to prevent changes to the “traditional” definition of marriage, Proposition 8 was passed in the state of California. Proposition 8 ruled that “only marriage between a man and a woman was valid or recognized.”[48] This ruling inspired a new generation of technologically savvy activists to harness the extraordinary power of the Internet and engage in social media activism in ways that had been previously been unseen.[49]

Unquestionably, social media has been integral to the advancement of the LGBTQ rights movement and in the establishment of greater levels of equality for members within the community. The utilization of platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, Snapchat and Youtube have effectively served to provide increased awareness and visibility. The power of these platforms are attributed with being one of the most critical elements in influencing society’s attitude towards homosexuality and LGBTQ persons.[50] Current research reveals that when a person realizes a friend or family member is gay, they are able to gain a greater appreciation and awareness of issues that may affect them.[51] This is confirmed by legislation that has been passed since 2010, wherein the LGBTQ movement has achieved many landmark victories. Most notably, these victories include the repeal of “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell,” the overturn of Proposition 8 as unconstitutional, and same-sex marriage being declared legal by the United States Supreme Court in all 50 states.[52]


These were some events that were critical to the LGBTQ Rights movement prior to 2010:

  • December 1924: Society for Human Rights Society for Human Rights is founded becoming the first gay rights organization in the United States.
  • November 1950: The Mattachine Society. The Mattachine Society is founded by Henry Hay becoming the nation’s first homosexual civil rights organization.
  • October 1955: Daughters of Bilitis. Daughters of Bilitis is founded by Del Martin and Phyllis Lyon as a secret sorority which served to become the first lesbian civil and political rights organization.
  • January 1958: ONE, Inc v. Olesen. The landmark case became the first ruling by the U.S. Supreme Court in favor of gay rights, granting freedom of speech to homosexuals.
  • June 1969: Stonewall Riots. A three day longriot in response to police harassment, which became a major turning point and mark the beginning of the modern American gay civil rights movement.
  • June 1970: Gay Pride March. In commemoration of the one year anniversary of the Stonewall Riots, Gay Pride marches took place in New York, Los Angeles, San Francisco, and Chicago. Since then, Gay Pride marches have become an annual worldwide event.
  • December 1973: Homosexuality declassified as a mental illness. The American Psychological Society removed the diagnosis of “homosexuality” as a mental illness from its Diagnostic and Statistical Manual.
  • November 1974: First Openly Gay person elected to office. Elaine Noble became the first openly gay person to be elected to office serving in the Massachusetts state legislature.
  • November 1977: First Openly Gay Elected Official in California. After three unsuccessful attempts, Harvey Milk finally won a spot on the San Francisco Board of Supervisors and while also serving to become the embodiment of the movement.
  • November 1978: Harvey Milk Assassinated. A year and 5 days after he was elected, Harvey Milk is shot and killed in City Hall by former supervisor Dan White. The Rainbow Flag also becomes a symbol of Gay Pride.
  • July 1980: Human Rights Campaign Fund. The first gay and lesbian political action committee was founded by Steve Endean and is today, the largest LGBTQ civil rights advocacy group and political lobbying organization in the U.S.
  • July 1981: AIDS Epidemic. The New York Times first reports on what is thought to be a rare cancer affecting gay men which later becomes known as the deadly AIDS virus.
  • February 1982: AB70. Wisconsin’s Gay Rights Law. Wisconsin becomes the first state to protect LGBTQ from discrimination in employment, housing, and public accommodations.
  • March 1987: ACT UP. HIV/AIDS activist group is founded and becomes known for its use of non violent direct action.
  • June 1991: The Red Ribbon Project. Visual AIDS launches its red awareness ribbon campaign at the Tony Awards presentation as a symbol of solidarity for those living with AIDS.
  • December 1993: “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell”. Instituted by the Clinton administration, “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell” was a controversial military policy directive aimed at preventing harassment/discrimination against closeted homosexuals, while preventing openly homosexual people from serving.
  • September 1996: DOMA. Defense of Marriage Act is enacted by President Clinton which denied federal recognition of same sex marriages and declared marriage to be between one man and one woman.
  • July 2000: Civil Unions. Vermont becomes the first state to offer civil union status to same sex couples affording them the same legal rights and responsibilities as marriage.
  • June 2003: Lawrence v. Texas. The US Supreme Court decriminalizes gay sex, ruling that sodomy laws are an unconstitutional invasion of privacy.
  • November 2008: Prop 8. California voters approved the measure that made same sex marriage illegal.
  • October 2009: Hate Crimes Prevention Act. President Barack Obama signs The Matthew Shepard and  James Byrd Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act that makes it a federal crime to assault an individual because of their sexual identity.

President Obama repeals the discriminatory law, making it legal for openly gay people to serve in the military


The Democratic party becomes the first major political party to openly support marriage equality. 


The US Supreme Court in a landmark case overturns Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) declaring it unconstitutional.


The US Supreme Court rules in the landmark civil rights case of Obergefell v. Hodges that same sex marriage is a fundamental right protected by the constitution.


President Obama declares The Stonewall Inn a National Monument marking it as the 1st US national monument dedicated to LGBTQ rights and history.


Washington DC becomes the first state to offer residents a gender neutral option when applying for a driver’s license.

Political Spectrum Affiliation

The LGBTQ movement and its allies are most strongly aligned with and identify with the Democratic Party. Sixty-five percent of LGBTQ individuals identify as Democrat, while only twenty-one percent identify as Republican.[53] LGBTQ individuals are twice as likely to identify as liberal, however a sizeable twenty percent identify as conservative.[54] While the Republican Party has historically been opposed to gay rights, the Democratic Party has a long history of supporting gay rights.[55] The Democratic Party was the first major political party to support same- sex marriage in its platform and put forth what has been viewed as one of the most pro-LGBTQ platform ever, showing their support for gay rights issues which include everything from healthcare to immigration.[56] Democratic President Barack Obama was the first sitting president to openly support same-sex marriage. The LGBTQ reforms that were enacted under President Obama have been likened to what President Lyndon Johnson was able to achieve for the black community through the signing of the Civil Rights Act.[57]

Key Actors

There have been many key actors from the past century that have contributed to the growth of the LGBTQ movement. It is impossible to provide an exhaustive list of every notable figure, but we have summarized those who made the largest impacts and contributions. Barbara Gittings founded the New York Chapter of Daughters of Bilitis and was also instrumental in leading the movement that led to the APA revoking homesexuality as a mental disorder.[58] Harry Hay founded one of the world’s first organizations for gay men, The Mattachine Society and also the Los Angeles chapter of the Gay Liberation Front.[59] As a transgender activist, Marsha P. Johnson, played an instrumental role in the Stonewall Riots. She also co-founded both the Street Transgender Action Revolutionaries (STAR) and the Gay Liberation Front.[60] Along with Johnson, transgender Latina, Sylvia Rivera, co- founded STAR.  Although Rivera is often forgotten, similarities have been drawn between her and Rosa Parks as she is credited for putting the “T” in LGBTQ.[61] Craig Rodwell opened the Oscar Wilde Memorial bookshop, the first bookstore to feature predominantly gay and lesbian literature and served as a hub for activism and organization efforts in the Gay Liberation Movement. He also organized the first Pride Parade.[62] Harvey Milk, one of the first openly gay elected officials, fought for change within the political system, and was highly influential as an activist in the Gay Liberation Movement.[63] Gilbert Baker an artist activist who is credited for creating the Rainbow Flag, which has become the iconic symbol of gay pride.[64] Larry Kramer, a tireless voice for gay men, founded the Gay Men’s Health Crisis and ACT UP organizations during the 1980s in response to the government’s indifference to the growing AIDS crisis.[65] Steve Endean founded the Human Rights Campaign Fund, which later became known simply as the Human Rights Campaign (HRC). HRC is the largest gay civil rights organizations in the United States. HRC has been widely influential in utilizing social media to achieve landmark victories.[66] Edith Windsor is a lifelong activist who is most notable for her landmark case, United States v. Windsor, which resulted in the federal recognition of same-sex marriage along with many additional rights to federal benefits for LGBTQ couples.[67]


LGBTQ individuals can be found in every population worldwide. According to the Williams Institute LGBT Data and Demographics, individuals who identify as LGBTQ constitute 3.8 percent of the population in the United States.[68] Females identifying as LGBTQ constitute 52 percent of the total LGBTQ identifying population, while males identifying as LGBTQ constitute slightly below at 48 percent. In terms of race and ethnicity demographics, according to the Williams Institute, the LGBTQ population is 61 percent white,15 percent Hispanic, 11 percent black, and 10 percent of other races.[69] Although LGBTQ persons are slightly more likely to be unemployed or without health insurance than non-LGBTQ individuals, they are equally represented in terms of having a college education. The most populous LGBTQ representation is the District of Columbia with 10.8 percent of the population identifying as LGBTQ, followed by the state of Vermont with 5.8 percent of the population identifying as LGBTQ.[70] According to Gallup Polls, North Dakota has the least percentage of LGBTQ residents at 1.7 percent.[71] The average age of non- LGBTQ individuals in the U.S. is 47.3, whereas LGBTQ identifying tend to skew younger at an average age of 39.7.[72] Of the 3.8 percent national average for LGBTQ identifying persons, 29 percent are parents.


The Human Rights Campaign (HRC) is one of the first and largest LGBTQ advocacy organizations. With legislative action as their primary focus, the HRC has led the success of the most significant civil rights victories in the U.S., including the repeal of the “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell” law and the Supreme Court battle for marriage equality.[73] 

Parents, Family, & Friends of Lesbians and Gays (PFLAG) was founded in 1972, is a nationwide nonprofit that serves to provide education services, support, and advocacy to LGBTQ individuals, families, and communities.[74]

The Trevor Project is a nationwide organization that was founded in 1998 and serves to provide crisis intervention and suicide prevention services for LGBTQ individuals. The Trevor Project utilizes a wide variety of social media platforms in its outreach efforts and celebrity support has served to increase the organization’s visibility.[75]

Gay and Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation (GLAAD) was founded in 1985 and has served to monitor and promote the image of LGBTQ people in the media.[76]

Lambda Legal Defense and Education Fund was founded in 1973 and is one of the largest legal organizations in the nation working to secure LGBTQ civil rights through education, public policy work, and litigation.[77]


Celebrity Endorsers

Hollywood has a long history of support for the LGBTQ movement, as many celebrities have spoken out and openly advocated for LGBTQ rights and organizations. Some of the most notable celebrity advocates include, Elizabeth Taylor, Elton John, Ellen DeGeneres, Neil Patrick Harris, LaVerne Cox, and Daniel Radcliffe.

Elizabeth Taylor was one of the first celebrities to speak out in regards to the AIDS awareness. She was tireless in her efforts to raise money for AIDS research and she aimed to support “those the world does not want to see.”[78]

Elton John founded the Elton John AIDS Foundation in 1992 using his celebrity status to raise awareness and funds for anti-discrimination initiatives, prevention, treatment, and HIV related services.[79]

Ellen DeGeneres was the first gay/lesbian character to come out on television and in real life. Although her show was immediately cancelled, she continues to be an outspoken activist by using humor to challenge opponents of the LGBTQ movement.[80]

Neil Patrick Harris has worked with the Human Rights Campaign, publicly advocating for LGBTQ rights. He has publicly endorsed and advocated for the legalization of same-sex marriage. He is most notable for his s representation of a gay married man with two adopted children on the television show Modern Family.[81]

LaVerne Cox is a prominent figure in the trans community, using her celebrity platform to raise awareness for those who are further marginalized in the LGBTQ community, such as trans people and people of color.[82]

Daniel Radcliffe leveraged his fame to advocate for the LGBTQ community as an ally. Notably, he referred to rumors he was gay as “awesome” and has worked extensively with the Trevor Project.[83]

Social Media Presence

The LGBTQ community is active on a variety of social media platforms, such as Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, Tumblr and many more. Social media enables members of the LGBTQ community to connect, engage in open dialogue, and to share their lived experiences. Social media can be especially helpful in allowing LGBTQ individuals who live in rural or less progressive areas to engage with the community. It can also be a useful tool to provide knowledge and resources for LGBTQ youth.

Platforms Used

Facebook created a rainbow flag filter so that users could show their support for the Supreme Court ruling that legalized gay marriage across all 50 states. In a statement, Facebook said, “Approximately 70% of people on Facebook in the U.S. are connected to a friend who has expressly identified as gay, lesbian, or bisexual on their timeline.” This led to the trending of the hashtag #PrideConnectsUs. After the court’s ruling, many allies and advocates took to Twitter, using the hashtag #LoveWins. Twitter automatically added rainbow emojis for over 6.2 million tweets.[84] Many people also shared their support on Instagram, posting pictures to celebrate the win for gay rights equality. Instagram also released a statement promoting the court’s ruling.[85]

FTM Newsletter

In 1991, activist James Green took over the FTM or female-to-male (FTM, or F2m) newsletter, developing it into FTM International, Inc.[86] This corporation is one the world’s largest information and networking groups for female-to-male transgender people and transexual men. Reliable  information pertaining to issues surrounding health and wellbeing for members of the transgender community has not always been readily available, making the FTM newsletter a valuable resource. Although the organization is centered around the female-to-male trans experience, it strives to benefit and support the entire LGBTQ community. The brand includes a website with news articles, stories, guides, and information regarding gender and sexuality.[87] 


        The Dotgay Initiative is a campaign that has been advocating to establish an online gay community using .gay as its domain, similar to those used by organizations (.org) and educational institutions (.edu). The initiative was originally proposed to ICANN, the nonprofit organization in charge of the World Wide Web’s website domains, by a gay rights community group. The proposed Dotgay (.gay) Initiative was rejected because it failed to meet ICANN’s Community Priority Evaluation Standards, owing to its inability to establish an inclusive global gay community. Although the initiative has received wide support from within the gay community, this support was deemed insufficient. In the case of Dot Registry v. ICANN, ICANN was reprimanded for being in violation of its own bylaws surrounding issues of transparency, fairness, and nondiscrimination.[88] Meanwhile, the fight to establish an online gay namespace for the benefit of the community continues.

Popular Hashtags        


        The hashtag #LoveIsLove was the most popular slogan for LGBTQ acceptance and awareness in 2017. This new hashtag went viral quickly, creating a sense of belonging for people within the LGBTQ community. The challenges when it comes to campaigning for the LGBTQ community is having to address two different audiences. The community wants to empower those who identify as queer, as well as the LGBTQ allies. The hashtag attempts to show everyone that being part of the LGBTQ community is acceptable, however, its simplicity has been debated. Some people in the community feel that the message has good intentions, but is not as powerful as the slogan, “We’re here, we’re queer, get used to it.”[89]


NOH8 (pronounced: No Hate) was a campaign that reached its peak in 2009. According to its mission statement, “The NOH8 Campaign is a charitable organization whose mission is to promote marriage, gender and human equality through education, advocacy, social media, and visual protest.”[91] On November 4, 2008 Proposition 8 passed in California at a 52.24% majority (equivalent to 599,602 votes) that banned same-sex marriage. The defeat to the LGBTQ community sparked grassroots level movement, as individuals were inspired to fight for marriage equality. Adam Bouska and partner Jeff Parshley, the organizers of the campaign, created a “photographic silent protest” which gained traction and a large amount of recognition due to the participation of high profile celebrities and the boldness of the photos included. All photos had the same structure, a celebrity (or multiple) would have duct tape covering their mouths and the phrase “NOH8” painted on one cheek. The duct tape covering the mouth symbolized the LGBTQ community ‘being silenced.’[92] The photos were then shared across multiple social media sites, such as Facebook and Twitter. Celebrities would also share the photos along with information regarding the campaign across their social media platforms creating greater visibility, awareness, and inspiring others to do the same. In response, other photographers and groups of individuals created their own photoshoots, increasing the virality of the campaign. To date the NOH8 Campaign has hosted official photo shoots in 48 of the 50 states in the U.S. and plus Washington D.C. and 20 other countries. Seven years after the beginning of this project, over 55,00 faces have been included in this movement, including politicians, military personnel, newlyweds, law enforcement agents, artists, celebrities.[93] The celebrities that engaged in this photoshoot are Ricky Martin, Larry King, David Hasselhoff, Kathy Griffin, Raven Symone, Kourtney, Kim, and Khloe Kardashian, Lindsay Lohan, Paris Hilton, and Mel B.[94],[95]

Jenni Pulos #noH8 #LGBTQRights
Jenni Pulos and her dog, Janet, pose to show support.

The campaign released a commercial called “I am Human NOH8 Campaign PSA,” which included a variety of well-known celebrities and influencers such as Ricky Martin, Marlee Matlin, and George Takei, speaking in nine different languages to emphasize the internationally  supported message of marriage equality.[96] The video stressed that regardless of the language spoken, “Everybody everywhere speaks the universal language of love.”[97] As of November 12, 2017, the video has 190,187 views on YouTube. Though the NOH8 Campaign began after Proposition 8 and was closely tied with  marriage equality, the influence and magnitude of the campaign extended to other social issues, like racial discrimination and bullying.[98] The NOH8 Campaign promoted love, acceptance and respect for all human beings worldwide, using the hashtag #NOH8Worldwide.[99]

#Pride / #GayPride

#LGBTQRights First Gay Pride Rally
A photo from a 1972 Gay Pride Rally, one of the very first ones.


#Pride is widely used to celebrate LGBTQ Pride month that happens every year during the month of June. Pride Month was formed as a result of the 1969 Stonewall Riots in Manhattan. Celebrations vary from pride parades, parties, concerts, and many other events attracting millions of people around the world.[101] 

During the Stonewall Riots, a committee was formed to commemorate the riots but they had difficulty naming the committee. Eventually, L. Craig Schoonmaker suggested “gay pride” and as a result, Gay Pride was agreed upon by the entire committee.[102] In an interview with Helen Zaltzman, Schoonmaker said, “People did not have power then; even now, we only have some. But anyone can have pride in themselves, and that would make them happier as people, and produce the movement likely to produce change.”[103]


        On Friday August 25, 2017, President Donald Trump announced a ban on transgender people serving in the military. This was in direct opposition to the Obama administration’s policies that allow openly transgenders to serve in the military.[104] The Trump administration’s ban would not only prevent the trans community from serving in the military in any capacity, but it would also ban the Department of Defense from using money to provide the necessary medication for trans individuals currently serving in the military.[105],[106],[107]

        The ban has been met with opposition; Federal Judge Kollar-Kotelly made the preliminary ruling to block the military trans ban, saying Trump’s reasons for issuing the ban are unsupported and in contradiction with the research provided by the military.[108] Additionally, top military officials who were caught off guard by the announcement appeared to side with trans service members stating that all personnel would be treated with respect and that there would be no changes until the ban was lawfully implemented.[109]

#LGBTQRights Trans Ban by Donald Trump
Trump tweeted announcing his “Trans Ban.”

Meme vs. Cause

        The LGBTQ community have utilized multiple memes in order to celebrate and address controversial issues like same-sex marriage. In doing so, they have adopted several gay icons.

One of these icons comes from the film “The Babadook.” The movie features a monster as one of the main characters, who may or may not be gay. Babadook became a gay icon when someone posted an image on Tumblr that showed the film categorized in the LGBTQ section. However, “The Babadook” only appeared in the same category because of the “B” in LGBTQ, yet people rapidly shared and tweet the image, gaining over 5,000 retweets.[110] The meme drew most attention during LGBTQ Pride month, becoming a gay icon in the process. Many people were confused by the Babadook becoming a gay icon, not understanding the connection from a horror character and pride. Nowhere in the movie does it hint that Babadook is gay In the movie; Babadook is an outsider in the family. The mother and son know he exists, but don’t fully acknowledge his existence. This feeling of being invisible is something many people in the LGBTQ community face in their own families.[111] The character doesn’t live in a closet, but is put in the attic, isolated from everyone else. It takes the family a while to finally accept him for what he is. In an article in the Los Angeles Times Karen Tongson, a professor at the University of Southern California analyzed why the character is a queer icon,“He lives in a basement, he’s weird and flamboyant, he’s living adjacently to a single mother in this kind of queer kinship structure.”[112] 

#LGBTQRights Babadook Gay Icon
Twitter user makes reference to the character from The Babadook.[113]

Analog Antecedents

MOTSS: “Members of the Same Sex”

        Members of the Same Sex (MOTSS) was one of the first online spaces for the LGBTQ community. MOTSS was the first explicitly LGBTQ discussion forum built on pre-Internet networks garnering a following of about 83,000 people. The discussion forum was built in 1980 using ARPANET and BITNET, which were pre-Internet networks, where people could discuss topics centered around coming out and the impact this decision had on their lives. There was also discussions about politics and the little known and frequently misunderstood disease called AIDS. The space was described by a user as “an intelligent place for discussion of gay issues with some sort of filter for thoughtfulness of the members. We were there to discuss opera and culture and Madonna, not to get laid.”[114]

Impact of Movement

Policy Achievements

Given the long history of marginalization homosexual individuals have suffered, the LGBTQ movement was formed out of the communities desire to improve their social standing within society and to serve as a form of direct action aimed at opposing policies that adversely affect them. As the LGBTQ movement has grown in scale, an increasing number of resources and organizations dedicated to protecting the civil and human rights of the LGBTQ community have emerged. While the impact and policy achievements obtained through the movement since 1969 have been substantial, there is still much work to be done. The LGBTQ movement remains commited to addressing issues which disproportionately affect the community such as violence, employment discrimination, poverty, and health care.[115] Additionally, the movement recognizes the intersectionality between the LGBTQ movement and other marginalized groups, and often lends its support in favor of human and civil rights for all.


In Baker v. Nelson, the Minnesota Supreme Court ruled that state law limits marriage to opposite-sex couples, and that this limitation did not violate the United States Constitution.[116] The United States Supreme Court dismissed the appeal, reaffirming that the precedent for same-sex marriage would remain.


Wisconsin was the first state in the United States to pass a civil rights bill that protects the gay and lesbian community from being discriminated against in housing, employment, and public accommodations.[117]


In Bowers v. Hardwick, the United States Supreme Court ruled that states can pass and enforce sodomy laws that specifically target the homosexual community.[118]


Policies that restricted the immigration of gays and lesbians were rescinded. However, policies that restricted the immigration of people with HIV and AIDS remained.[119]


Minnesota established a law that banned discrimination against transgenders.[120] The “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell” policy becomes law for the U.S. military. This law lifted a ban preventing homosexuals from serving in the military, however the attempt to reach a compromise did not go far enough as homosexuals serving openly were still deemed to be an “unacceptable risk.”[121]


President Bill Clinton signed an executive order that brought to an end the practice by the Federal Government of denying security clearances to individuals based on their sexual orientation.[122] It is important to note that being ‘closeted and vulnerable to blackmail’ are reasons for the Federal Government to deny clearance.[123]


President Clinton signed what is referred to as DOMA, Defense of Marriage Act. DOMA denied access to benefits to homosexual couples. The benefits that opposite-sex married couples received from the government would not be given, even if gay marriage was legalized (which it was not legalized in the United States until 2015).

In Romer v. Evans, the United States’ Supreme Court struck down Colorado’s ‘Amendment 2,’ which referred to protections for lesbian and gays as ‘special rights.’ Colorado law denied gay and lesbian protections against discrimination, but in the supporting opinion Justice Anthony Kennedy affirmed that they were needed to “constitute ordinary civil life.”[124]


Vermont legally recognized civil unions between gay and lesbian couples. Vermont was the first state to recognize same sex civil unions. These civil unions allowed for the same benefits as unions entered into by those of the opposite sex, but were not referred to as ‘marriages.’[125]


NYC expanded the definition of “gender” to include protections for transgender and gender nonconforming people in employment, housing, and public accommodations in the NYC Human Rights Law.

#LGBTQRights Advertisement
New York City uses advertisements to push for transgender acceptance.


Prior to Lawrence v. Texas, the state of Texas banned sodomy, a sexual activity mainly engaged in by homosexuals. In this Supreme Court case, the court found it unconstitutional as “Liberty presumes an autonomy of self that includes freedom of thought, belief, expression, and certain intimate conduct.”[126]


Massachusetts recognizes same-sex marriages. This is the first state that recognized marriage between all sexes.


California became the second state to recognize same-sex marriages. The California Supreme Court ruled that homosexual couples have a constitutional right to marry.[127]


        “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell” is repealed by the Obama Administration. Officers in the military no longer have to lie or create a cover for their sexual identity.


Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) – a law signified by President Bill Clinton in 1996 that prohibited same-sex couples from receiving federal marriage benefits, is overturned.

On this same day, the Supreme Court also ruled that California’s Prop 8 ban on same-sex marriage is unconstitutional, and allowed California to become the 13th state where same-sex couple can marry.


Department of Education issued official guidance to clarify that transgender students are protected from discrimination under Title IX, a federal civil rights law that prohibits discrimination against students on the basis of sex/gender in federally funded education programs and activities.


Supreme Court ruled that states are constitutionally required to issue marriage licenses to same-sex couples, legalizing marriage equality in all 50 states.

On & Offline Trends of Movement

Pride Parade

        The Pride Parade is a global event that occurs annually during the month of June, specifically around June 10th. This is the anniversary of the 1969 Stonewall Riots in New York City, which many in the community consider to be a major inflection point in the modern LGBTQ social movement.[128],[129]

Pride Parade Event in SF 2018

Though local parades share the same goals regardless of where they occur, they differ from region to region. Parades occur in almost every major city and in over fifty countries, including Canada, Spain, and the United Kingdom.

Facebook has been pivotal platform in the organization of Pride Parades. As of November 2017, over 1,000 people have shown interest in attending San Francisco’s Pride Parade in 2018. In the event description it noted that “tens of thousands” will attend the celebration, and that it will be the “largest gathering of the LGBTQ community on the West Coast.”[130]

Critiques of Movement

Critiques of the LGBTQ movement have largely been centered around religious opposition, shaping public opinion. The religious and political right, along with think tanks and anti- LGBTQ hate groups like the Family Research Council, pose the greatest threat to the civil rights of LGBTQ persons. These organizations actively spread inaccurate and disparaging information regarding the LGBTQ community in an effort to oppose policies that give civil rights to LGBTQ persons.[131] Notable opponents to the movement include: Anita Bryant, Westboro Baptist Church, Chick-fil-A, Kim Davis, and Jack Phillips.

Anita Bryant was a pioneer in the anti-gay movement. She started an organization called Save Our Children, proposing that homosexuals sought to recruit children into the gay “lifestyle.” This campaign played an important role in slowing down the growth of the LGBTQ movement.[132]

Westboro Baptist Church is a small but provocative group that pickets funerals with their slogan “God Hates Fags.”[133] The group associates the deaths of fallen service members as an act of God’s fury over acceptance of LGBTQ rights.[134]

Fast Food restaurant Chick-fil-A created a controversy when the family behind the chain took a public stance against marriage equality, sparking boycotts of the restaurant as well as “kiss-ins.”[135]Despite the backlash, the company’s most recent tax returns reveal that they continue to donate hundreds of thousands of dollars to anti-LGBTQ organizations.[136]

Kim Davis, a county clerk in Kentucky, became infamous after she refused to sign  marriage licenses for same- sex couples following the Supreme Court’s 2015 decision on marriage equality. Despite serving time in jail, she continues to speak out against the LGBTQ community. [137]

Colorado baker, Jack Phillips refused to bake a wedding cake for a same- sex couple stating that it violated his Christian beliefs. The case is set to be heard before the Supreme Court and the Trump administration has filed papers supporting Phillips.[138]


Michelle LeFort is currently a 3rd year at UC Berkeley College of Letters and Science, majoring in Sociology with a minor in Public Policy. Michelle is the proud Mom of an LGBTQ Son and firmly believes in the value of studying human social relationships and institutions with the idea that as individuals and as a society, when we know better, we do better.

Shannon Kakuk is currently a 3rd year at Berkeley-Haas, studying business administration and economics. Her favorite part of this project was learning about the strides that the LGBTQ community has made in the past decade and looks forward to seeing actual equality being obtained in the future.

[1] Steinmetz, Katy. “Why ‘LGBTQ’ will Replace ‘LGBT’.” Time. 26 Oct 2017. Web. 20 Nov. 2017. <http://time.com/4544704/why-lgbtq-will-replace-lgbt/>



[4]The Washington Post. “The international gay rights movement is gaining.” The Denver Post. 23 May 2014. Web. 21 Nov. 2017. <http://www.denverpost.com/2014/05/23/the-international-gay-rights-movement-is-gaining/>

[5] Duncan, Pamela. “Gay Relationships are Still Criminalised in 72 countries, Report Finds.”The Guardian. 27 Jul. 2017. Web. 28 Nov. 2017. <http://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/jul/27/gay-relationships-still-criminalised-countries-report>

[6] “Maps | Sexual Orientation Laws.” ILGA, International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association, ilga.org/what-we-do/maps-sexual-orientation-laws/.

[7]Powley, Kirsten. “Best European Countries for LGBT Rights – Days To Come.” Days to Come. 6 Apr. 2017. Web. 15 Dec. 2017. <http://www.tourradar.com/days-to-come/best-european-countries-lgbt-rights/>

[8] Lowe, Josh. “Same-sex Marriage is Still Banned in Most of the World. Where is it Legal?” Newsweek. 15 Nov. 2017. Web. 21 Nov. 2017. <http://www.newsweek.com/same-sex-marriage-australia-711799>

[9] Arwen Armbrecht. “Who leads Europe for LGBT rights?.” World Economic Forum. n.d. Web. 15 Dec. 2017. <https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2016/05/who-leads-europe-for-lgbt-rights/>

[10] Michael Lipka. “Where Europe Stands on Gay Marriage and Civil Unions.” Pew Research Center. 30 Jun. 2017. Web. 15 Dec. 2017. <http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/06/30/where-europe-stands-on-gay-marriage-and-civil-unions/>

[11] Reuters Editorial. “Thousands Rally for Gay Marriage in Australia Ahead of Vote.” U.S. Web. 15 Dec. 2017. <https://www.reuters.com/article/us-australia-protests-gaymarriage/thousands-rally-for-gay-marriage-in-australia-ahead-of-vote-idUSKCN1B6074>

[12] Reuters Editorial. “Thousands Rally for Gay Marriage in Australia Ahead of Vote.” U.S. Web. 15 Dec. 2017. <https://www.reuters.com/article/us-australia-protests-gaymarriage/thousands-rally-for-gay-marriage-in-australia-ahead-of-vote-idUSKCN1B6074>

[13] ibid.

[14]Chappell, Bill. “Taiwan’s High Court Rules Same-Sex Marriage Is Legal, In a First For Asia.” NPR.org. 24 May 2017. Web. 28 Nov. 2017. <https://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2017/05/24/529841027/taiwans-high-court-rules-same-sex-marriage-is-legal-in-a-first-for-asia>

[15] Wang, Yifan. “Chinese Regulator Calls Homosexuality ‘Abnormal’ and Bans Gay Content From the Internet.” Fortune. 30 Jun. 2017. Web. 28 Nov. 2017. <http://fortune.com/2017/06/30/china-homosexuality-internet-weibo-censorship/>

[16] Kentish, Ben. “India declares freedom of sexual orientation a fundamental right.” The Independent. 25 Aug. 2017. Web. 28 Nov. 2017. <http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/asia/india-sexual-orientation-freedom-sexuality-fundamental-right-ruling-openly-lgbt-gay-lesbian-a7913681.html>

[17] “76 Countries Where Homosexuality is Illegal.” 76 CRIMES. 17 Jun. 2012. Web. 28 Nov. 2017. <https://76crimes.com/76-countries-where-homosexuality-is-illegal/>

[18] Senzee, Thom. “The State of LGBT Equality in Africa.” Advocate.com. 17 Nov. 2014. Web. 28 Nov. 2017. <http://www.advocate.com/world/2014/11/17/state-lgbt-equality-africa>

[19] Oishimaya Sen Nag. “First Countries To Recognize Same-Sex Marriages Nationally.” WorldAtlas. 7 Mar. 2016. Web. 28 Nov. 2017. <http://www.worldatlas.com/articles/first-countries-to-recognize-same-sex-marriages-nationally.html>

[20] Witt, Lynn, et al. “Out in All Directions: A Treasury of Gay and Lesbian America. Warner Books, 1997.

[21] “Rainbow-flag-NYC.jpg (468×269).” Lgbtweekly.com. Web. 15 Dec. 2017. <http://lgbtweekly.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Rainbow-flag-NYC.jpg>

[22] “A Survey of LGBT Americans.” Pew Research Center’s Social & Demographic Trends Project, 13 June 2013, www.pewsocialtrends.org/2013/06/13/a-survey-of-lgbt-americans/.

[23] “Why This New Pride Flag Stirred Controversy.” Refinery29.com. 15 Jun. 2017. Web. 21 Nov. 2017. <http://www.refinery29.com/2017/06/159403/philadelphia-pride-flag-controversy>

[24]Andrew R. Flores, “Analysis | Yes, there’s racism in the LGBT community. But there’s more outside it..” Washington Post. 7 Jul. 2017. Web. 28 Nov. 2017. <https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/monkey-cage/wp/2017/07/07/yes-there-is-racism-in-the-lgbtq-community-but-not-as-much-as-outside-it/>

[25] ibid.

[26] Smith, Romilly. “Do You Have a Flag? – Freedom Requires Wings.” Freedom Requires Wings. n.d. Web. 21 Nov. 2017. <http://www.freedomrequireswings.com/2012/11/do-you-have-flag.html>

[27] Sage Lazzaro. “Here’s How to Get the New Pride Reaction on Facebook.” Observer. 12 Jun. 2017. Web. 1 Dec. 2017. <http://observer.com/2017/06/how-to-get-facebook-pride-reaction/>

[28] McDonald, James. “Fbookrainbow.jpg” James Mcdonald. “26 Million People Change Profile Pictures With Facebook’s Rainbow Pride Filter.” Out.com. 29 Jun. 2015. Web. 15 Dec. 2017. <www.out.com/popnography/2015/6/29/26-million-people-change-profile-pictures-facebooks-rainbow-pride-filter>

[29] “Homophile Movement, US.” Glbtqarchive.com.  Web. 21 Nov. 2017. <http://www.glbtqarchive.com/ssh/homophile_movement_S.pdf>

[30] O’Brien, Keegan. “Tearing Down the Walls.” Jacobinmag.com. n.d. Web. 21 Nov. 2017. <http://jacobinmag.com/2015/08/lgbtq-stonewall-marriage-equality-mattachine-sylvia-rivera/>

[31] ibid.

[32] Holland, Brynn. “How Activists Plotted the First Gay Pride Parades – History in the Headlines.” HISTORY.com. n.d. Web. 15 Dec. 2017. <http://www.history.com/news/how-activists-plotted-the-first-gay-pride-parades>

[33] “Charles Silverstein and the Declassification of Homosexuality as a Mental Illness” Glsen.org. 14 Jul. 2017. Web. 21 Nov. 2017. <https://www.glsen.org/sites/default/files/Charles%20Silverstein%20Backgrounder_0.pdf>

[34]Rebecca J. Rosen. “A Glimpse Into 1970s Gay Activism.” The Atlantic. n.d. Web. 21 Nov. 2017. <http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2014/02/a-glimpse-into-1970s-gay-activism/284077/>

[35] Centers For Disease Control And Prevention. “U.S. Statistics.” HIV.gov. 19 Jun. 2017. Web. 28 Nov. 2017. <https://www.hiv.gov/hiv-basics/overview/data-and-trends/statistics>

[36] Craig A. Rimmerman. “ACT UP.” TheBody.com. n.d. Web. 21 Nov. 2017. <http://www.thebody.com/content/art14001.html>

[37] Westervelt Twitter, Eric. “ACT UP At 30: Reinvigorated For Trump Fight.” NPR.org. 17 Apr. 2017. Web. 21 Nov. 2017. <https://www.npr.org/2017/04/17/522726303/act-up-at-30-reinvigorated-for-trump-fight>

[38] ibid.

[39] HIV.gov. “A Timeline of HIV and AIDS.” HIV.gov. 11 May 2016. Web. 21 Nov. 2017. <https://www.hiv.gov/hiv-basics/overview/history/hiv-and-aids-timeline>

[40] Invisible, 99%. “How a Simple Ribbon Took AIDS From Taboo to Trendy Cause.” Slate Magazine, 22 July 2015, www.slate.com/blogs/the_eye/2015/07/22/the_genesis_of_the_aids_awareness_ribbon_from_99_invisible_and_roman_mars.html.

[41] ibid.

[42] Visual Aids. “The Red Ribbon Project.” Visual AIDS. n.d. Web. 21 Nov. 2017. <https://www.visualaids.org/projects/detail/the-red-ribbon-project>

[43] Horvitz, Paul F. “‘Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell, Don’t Pursue’ Is White House’s Compromise Solution : New U.S. Military Policy Tolerates Homosexuals.” Nytimes.com. 20 Jul. 1993. Web. 21 Nov. 2017. <http://www.nytimes.com/1993/07/20/news/20iht-gay_1.html>

[44]CNN Library. “LGBT Rights Milestones Fast Facts.” CNN. 19 Jun. 2015. Web. 21 Nov. 2017. <http://www.cnn.com/2015/06/19/us/lgbt-rights-milestones-fast-facts/index.html>

[45]Spaulding, Pam. “A Tech-Powered Gay Rights Movement.” HuffPost. 23 Nov. 2009. Web. 21 Nov. 2017. <https://www.huffingtonpost.com/pam-spaulding/a-tech-powered-gay-rights_b_295580.html>

[46]Franke-Ruta, Garance. “How America Got Past the Anti-Gay Politics of the ’90s.” The Atlantic. Web. 21 Nov. 2017. <http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2013/04/how-america-got-past-the-anti-gay-politics-of-the-90s/266976/>

[47] Politico Staff. “26 Gay-Rights Milestones.” POLITICO. 26 Jun. 2013. Web. 21 Nov. 2017. <https://www.politico.com/gallery/2012/05/20-gay-rights-milestones/000130-001551.html>

[48] ibid.

[49] Bennett, Jessica. “Prop. 8 Rouses a New Generation of Gay Activists.” Newsweek. 8 Dec. 2008. Web. 21 Nov. 2017. <http://www.newsweek.com/prop-8-rouses-new-generation-gay-activists-83227>

[50] O’Neil, Luke. “How Facebook Friended Gay Marriage.” Esquire. 26 Jun. 2013. Web. 21 Nov. 2017. <http://www.esquire.com/blogs/politics/friending-gay-marriage>

[51] ibid.

[52] Webster, Emma Sarran. “18 Historic Moments in the Fight For LGBTQ Equality.” Teen Vogue. n.d. Web. 21 Nov. 2017. <https://www.teenvogue.com/story/lgbt-equality-key-moments-timeline>

[53] Newport, Frank. Gallup, Inc. “LGBT Americans Continue to Skew Democratic and Liberal.” Gallup.com. 30 Jul. 2014. Web. 25 Nov. 2017. <news.gallup.com/poll/174230/lgbt-americans-continue-skew-democratic-liberal.aspx>


[55] Stewart-Winter, Timothy. “With the 2016 Platform, the Democrats Are the Party for LGBTQ People. But Getting There Was a Long Struggle.” Slate Magazine, 25 July 2016, www.slate.com/blogs/outward/2016/07/25/the_democrat_dnc_2016_lgbt_platform_was_decades_in_the_making.html

[56]Lee, Traci G. . “Democratic Party to include Gay Marriage in Platform.” MSNBC. 30 Jul. 2012. Web. 25 Nov. 2017. <http://www.msnbc.com/msnbc/democratic-party-include-gay-marriage>

[57] ibid.

[58] Senzee, Thom. “20 LGBT People Who Changed the World.” Advocate.com. 8 Jul. 2016. Web. 27 Nov. 2017. <http://www.advocate.com/world/2016/7/08/20-lgbt-people-who-changed-world>

[59] Scott, Sydney. “5 Things To Know About Activist Marsha P. Johnson Ahead Of Netflix’s Documentary.”Essence.com. Web. 27 Nov. 2017. <.essence.com/entertainment/5-things-know-activist-marsha-p-johnson>

[60] ibid.

[61]NBC News. “A Forgotten Latina Trailblazer: LGBT Activist Sylvia Rivera.” NBC News. n.d. Web. 27 Nov. 2017. <https://www.nbcnews.com/news/latino/forgotten-latina-trailblazer-lgbt-activist-sylvia-rivera-n438586>

[62] PAPERMAG. “10 LGBT Activists and Allies Who Changed the Course of History.” PAPERMAG. 25 Jun. 2015. Web. 27 Nov. 2017. <papermag.com/10-lgbt-activists-and-allies-who-changed-the-course-of-history-1427591537.html>

[63] Senzee, Thom. “20 LGBT People Who Changed the World.” Advocate.com. 8 Jul. 2016. Web. 27 Nov. 2017. <http://www.advocate.com/world/2016/7/08/20-lgbt-people-who-changed-world>

[64]NBC News. “Gilbert Baker, inventor of rainbow pride flag, dies at 65.” NBC News. n.d. Web. 27 Nov. 2017. <https://www.nbcnews.com/feature/nbc-out/gilbert-baker-inventor-rainbow-pride-flag-dies-65-n741546>

[65]PAPERMAG. “10 LGBT Activists and Allies Who Changed the Course of History.” PAPERMAG. 25 Jun. 2015. Web. 27 Nov. 2017.

[66] Sam Blum. “Avatar activism: are social media avatars effective in showing support?.” the Guardian. 27 Mar. 2013. Web. 27 Nov. 2017. <http://www.theguardian.com/media/us-news-blog/2013/mar/27/social-media-gay-rights-avatar-activism>

[67] Robert D. Mcfadden. “Edith Windsor, Whose Same-Sex Marriage Fight Led to Landmark Ruling, Dies at 88.” Nytimes.com. 12 Sept. 2017. Web. 27 Nov. 2017. <https://www.nytimes.com/2017/09/12/us/edith-windsor-dead-same-sex-marriage-doma.html>

[68] “LGBT Data & Demographics – The Williams Institute.” Williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu. 9 May 2016. Web. 27 Nov. 2017. <https://williamsinstitute.law.ucla.edu/visualization/lgbt-stats/?topic=LGBT#density>

[69] Ibid.

[70] Ibid.

[71] Gallup, Inc.. “LGBT Percentage Highest in D.C., Lowest in North Dakota.” Gallup.com. 15 Feb. 2013. Web. 27 Nov. 2017. <http://news.gallup.com/poll/160517/lgbt-percentage-highest-lowest-north-dakota.aspx>

[72] Ibid.

[73]Parks-Ramage, Jonathan. “6 LGBTQ Organizations Doing Some Good for This Sick, Sad World.” Impact. 22 Jun. 2017. Web. 27 Nov. 2017. <https://impact.vice.com/en_us/article/wjq3my/5-lgbtq-organizations-doing-some-good-for-this-sick-sad-world>

[74]Collins, Michael. “22 LGBT Organizations You Need to Know.” Diversitybestpractices.com. n.d. Web. 28 Nov. 2017. <https://www.diversitybestpractices.com/news-articles/22-lgbt-organizations-you-need-know>

[75] The Trevor Project. “The Trevor Project — Saving Young LGBTQ Lives.” The Trevor Project. n.d. Web. 28 Nov. 2017. <https://www.thetrevorproject.org/>

[76] GLAAD. “GLAAD History and Highlights, 1985-Present.” GLAAD. 3 Oct. 2013. Web. 28 Nov. 2017. <https://www.glaad.org/about/history>

[77] Lambda Legal. “Lambda Legal History.” Lambda Legal. n.d. Web. 28 Nov. 2017. <https://www.lambdalegal.org/about-us/history>

[78] McNamara, Brittney. “Miley Cyrus Says Why Elizabeth Taylor Is Her Activist Icon.” Teen Vogue. n.d. Web. 28 Nov. 2017. <https://www.teenvogue.com/story/miley-cyrus-elizabeth-taylor-activist-icon>

[79] Matt Fernandez. “Elton John AIDS Foundation to Celebrate 25th Anniversary With Starry Gala.” Variety. 12 Sept. 2017. Web. 28 Nov. 2017. <http://variety.com/2017/music/news/elton-john-aids-foundation-25th-gala-1202555737/>

[80] Gilchrist, Tracy “​20 Times Ellen DeGeneres Was an Outspoken Activist.” Advocate.com. 24 Apr. 2017. Web. 28 Nov. 2017. <www.advocate.com/arts-entertainment/2017/4/24/20-times-ellen-degeneres-was-outspoken-activist>

[81] Tungol. “Neil Patrick Harris Is Our LGBT HIstory Month Icon Of The Day.” HuffPost. 19 Oct. 2012. Web. 28 Nov. 2017. <https://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/10/19/lgbt-history-month-icon-o_n_1956000.html>

[82]Dupere, Katie. “Laverne Cox boldly addresses the one issue the LGBTQ community doesn’t want to talk about.” Mashable. 22 Jun. 2017. Web. 28 Nov. 2017. <http://mashable.com/2017/06/22/laverne-cox-pride-lgbtq-activism/>

[83] Leach, Ben. “Harry Potter Star Daniel Radcliffe Loves People Thinking He’s Gay.” Telegraph.co.uk. 16 Jul. 2009. Web. 28 Nov. 2017. <http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/harry-potter/5841035/Harry-Potter-star-Daniel-Radcliffe-loves-people-thinking-hes-gay.html>

[84]Sarkar, Monica. CNN. “How Facebook Turned the World into a Rainbow – CNN.” CNN. 28 Jun. 2015. Web. 28 Nov. 2017. <http://www.cnn.com/2015/06/28/tech/social-media-gay-pride/index.html>

[85] The Huffington Post. “These Companies Aren’t Afraid To Support The Supreme Court’s Gay Marriage Rulings.” HuffPost. 26 Jun. 2013. Web. 28 Nov. 2017. <https://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/06/26/companies-support-gay-marriage_n_3503981.html>

[86] PBS. Out of the Past: 400 Years of Lesbian and Gay History in America.

[87] Ballard, Jason. “FTM Magazine.” FTM Magazine. 20 Aug. 2017. Web. 28 Nov. 2017. <https://ftmmagazine.com/>

[88] TheAdvocateMag. “The Battle Over .GAY.” ADVOCATE, Advocate.com, 31 Aug. 2016, www.advocate.com/technology/2016/8/31/battle-over-gay.

[89]Myers, Justin. “Is the Saccharine Message of #Loveislove Really What Pride is About? | Justin Myers.” the Guardian. 28 Jun. 2017. Web. 28 Nov. 2017. 

[90] Jenni Pulos & Janet. http://www.noh8campaign.com/photo-gallery/familiar-faces-part-5/photo/40543

[91]About | NOH8 Campaign.” Noh8campaign.com. n.d. Web. 28 Nov. 2017. <http://www.noh8campaign.com/article/about>

[92]“A History of Gay Rights in America.” Cbsnews.com. 30 Jun. 2016. Web. 28 Nov. 2017. <https://www.cbsnews.com/pictures/a-history-of-gay-rights-in-america/>

[93] About | NOH8 Campaign.” Noh8campaign.com. n.d. Web. 28 Nov. 2017. <http://www.noh8campaign.com/article/about>

[94] Matthew Tharrett. “PHOTOS: The 50 Most Powerful Celebrities To Pose For NOH8.” Queerty.com. 18 Dec. 2013. Web. 28 Nov. 2017. <https://www.queerty.com/photos-the-50-most-powerful-celebrities-to-pose-for-noh8-20131218>

[95] Bouska, Adam. “Familiar Faces Part 5 | NOH8 Campaign.” Noh8campaign.com. n.d. Web. 1 Dec. 2017. <http://www.noh8campaign.com/photo-gallery/familiar-faces-part-5/photo/40543>

[96] “I am Human NOH8 Campaign PSA – YouTube.” Youtube.com. n.d. Web. 28 Nov. 2017. <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PxR3a5yIWRw>

[97] ibid.

[98] About | NOH8 Campaign.” Noh8campaign.com. n.d. Web. 28 Nov. 2017. <http://www.noh8campaign.com/article/about>

[99] “American Gay Rights Movement Timeline.” Infoplease.com. 6 Sept. 2017. Web. 28 Nov. 2017. <https://www.infoplease.com/us/gender-issues/american-gay-rights-movement-timeline>

[100] Annapolis Students at Philadelphia’s First Gay Pride Rally, 1972 (Photograph: Kay Tobin Lahusen via NYPL) http://www.vintag.es/2013/06/photographs-of-gay-liberation-day-march.html

[101] The Library of Congress. “About Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Pride Month.” The Library of Congress. n.d. Web. 28 Nov. 2017. <https://www.loc.gov/lgbt-pride-month/about/>

[102]Elizabeth Ballou. “The Origins Of Pride Month: What You Should Know About Its History.” Bustle.com. 22 Jun. 2016. Web. 28 Nov. 2017. <https://www.bustle.com/articles/166925-the-origins-of-pride-month-what-you-should-know-about-its-history>

[103] The Allusionist. “Allusionist 12: Pride – transcript.” The Allusionist. 27 Oct. 2017. Web. 15 Dec. 2017. <https://www.theallusionist.org/transcripts/pride>

[104] Jeremy Diamond, Cnn. “Trump signs directive banning transgender military recruits.” CNN. 25 Aug. 2017. Web. 28 Nov. 2017. <http://www.cnn.com/2017/08/25/politics/trump-transgender-military/index.html>

[105] https://twitter.com/realdonaldtrump/status/890193981585444864?lang=en

[106] https://twitter.com/realdonaldtrump/status/890196164313833472?lang=en

[107] https://twitter.com/realdonaldtrump/status/890197095151546369?lang=en

[108]Ariane De Vogue, “Judge blocks enforcement of transgender military ban.” CNN. 30 Oct. 2017. Web. 28 Nov. 2017. <http://www.cnn.com/2017/10/30/politics/judge-blocks-trump-transgender-military-ban/index.html>l

[109]Starr, Barbara, et. al. CNN. “Trump Transgender Ban Blindsides Joint Chiefs.” CNN. 27 Jul. 2017. Web. 15 Dec. 2017. <http://www.cnn.com/2017/07/27/politics/trump-military-transgender-ban-joint-chiefs/index.html>

[110] Know Your Meme. “The Babadook.” Know Your Meme. 2 Nov. 2017. Web. 28 Nov. 2017. <http://knowyourmeme.com/memes/subcultures/the-babadook>

[111]Hunt, Elle. “The Babadook: how the horror movie monster became a gay icon.” the Guardian. 11 Jun. 2017. Web. 28 Nov. 2017. <http://www.theguardian.com/film/2017/jun/11/the-babadook-how-horror-movie-monster-became-a-gay-icon>

[112]Jessica Roy. “The Babadook as an LGBT icon makes sense. No, really.” latimes.com. 9 Jun. 2017. Web. 28 Nov. 2017. <http://www.latimes.com/entertainment/movies/la-et-mn-babadook-gay-icon-lgbt-history-20170609-story.html>

[113] https://twitter.com/jacobbullards/status/871144014484873217?lang=en

[114]Auerbach, David. “How Early Online Gay Culture Anticipated Today’s Social Networks.” Slate Magazine, 20 Aug. 2014. www.slate.com/articles/technology/bitwise/2014/08/online_gay_culture_and_soc_motss_how_a_usenet_group_anticipated_how_we_use.html.

[115] Scaccia, Annamarya. “4 LGBT Issues to Focus on Now That We Have Marriage Equality.” Rolling Stone, Rolling Stone, 29 June 2015, www.rollingstone.com/politics/news/4-lgbt-issues-to-focus-on-now-that-we-have-marriage-equality-20150629.

[116] Constitutional Law Reporter. “Baker v. Nelson: The Forgotten Same-Sex Marriage Case.” Constitutional Law Reporter. 20 Dec. 2012. Web. 15 Dec. 2017. <https://constitutionallawreporter.com/2012/12/20/baker-v-nelson-the-often-forgotten-supreme-court-same-sex-marriage-case/>

[117] PBS. Out of the Past: 400 Years of Lesbian and Gay History in America.

[118] ibid.

[119] PBS. Out of the Past: 400 Years of Lesbian and Gay History in America.

[120] ibid.

[121] Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell: A Threat to National Security.” The Bottom Line, 9 Nov. 2010, thebottomline.as.ucsb.edu/2010/11/dont-ask-dont-tell-a-threat-to-national-security.

[122] Purdum, Todd S. “Clinton Ends Ban on Security Clearance for Gay Workers.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 4 Aug. 1995, www.nytimes.com/1995/08/05/us/clinton-ends-ban-on-security-clearance-for-gay-workers.html.

[123] PBS. Out of the Past: 400 Years of Lesbian and Gay History in America.

[124] ibid.

[125] “Beyounyc press release.” nyc.gov/assets/cchr/downloads/pdf/press-releases/beyounyc%20press%20release.pdf

[126] PBS. Out of the Past: 400 Years of Lesbian and Gay History in America.

[127] ibid.

[128] Wythe, Bianca. “How the Pride Parade Became Tradition.” Inside American Experience, PBS, web.archive.org/web/20160422105803/http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/blog/2011/06/09/pride-parade/.

[129] https://www.facebook.com/events/492843370917659/

[130] https://www.facebook.com/events/492843370917659/

[131] Southern Poverty Law Center. “Family Research Council.” Southern Poverty Law Center. n.d. Web. 28 Nov. 2017. <https://www.splcenter.org/fighting-hate/extremist-files/group/family-research-council>

[132] “Out Of The Past.” Pbs.org. n.d. Web. 28 Nov. 2017. <http://www.pbs.org/outofthepast/past/p5/1977.html>

[133] BBC News. “Anti-gay church founder Phelps dies.” BBC News. n.d. Web. 28 Nov. 2017. <http://www.bbc.com/news/world-us-canada-26669967>

[134] http://www.charlotteobserver.com/news/local/article157638719.html

[135] Clare O’connor. “Chick-fil-A CEO Cathy: Gay Marriage Still Wrong, But I’ll Shut Up About It And Sell Chicken.” Forbes. 19 Mar. 2014. Web. 28 Nov. 2017. <https://www.forbes.com/sites/clareoconnor/2014/03/19/chick-fil-a-ceo-cathy-gay-marriage-still-wrong-but-ill-shut-up-about-it-and-sell-chicken/>

[136] https://hornetapp.com/stories/chick-fil-a-anti-lgbtq-donations/

[137] Curtis M. Wong. “Kim Davis Is Back And She Has A New Target For Her Anti-Gay Crusade.” HuffPost. 12 Oct. 2017. Web. 28 Nov. 2017. <https://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/kim-davis-romania_us_59df7caae4b00abf3646d038>

[138] NBC News. “Trump Administration Backs Baker Who Refused to Make Gay Wedding Cake.” NBC News. n.d. Web. 28 Nov. 2017. <https://www.nbcnews.com/feature/nbc-out/trump-administration-backs-baker-who-refused-make-gay-wedding-cake-n799766>